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==[[Syntax|Syntax]]==
 
==[[Syntax|Syntax]]==
  
==Example texts==
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==[[Example_texts|Example Texts]]==
 
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<div style="font-weight:normal; float:right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div><br/>
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{| class="wikitable mw-collapsed mw-collapsible"
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! Grammar Samples
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|-
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|
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Examples of grammatical case, verb conjugation, and word order.
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<u>Nominative Case</u>
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* '''thomid-a kansaptha'''<br />live-3NSG forest.N<br />''The forest lives''
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<u>Accusative Case</u>
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* '''kilikh-in hin kansaptha-me'''<br />see-1MSG PN.1MSG forest.N-ACC<br />''I see the forest''
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<u>Dative Case</u>
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* '''madhid-ikh-in hin ikhi dhammu-me i-mela'''<br />give-PST-1MSG PN.1MSG chair-ACC PN.3MSG-DAT<br />''I gave a chair to him''
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<u>Genitive Case</u>
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* '''madhid-ikh-in hin ikhi dhalannu-me ni-dhammu-nalo u-mela'''<br />give-PST-1MSG PN.1MSG one leg.F-ACC POSS.1MSG-chair-GEN PN.3FSG-DAT<br />''I gave a leg of my chair to her.''
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<u>Sublative Case</u>
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* '''kaura lharid-ikh-annu kansaptha-dan?'''<br />Q run-PST-2FPL forest.F-SUBL<br />''Did you run into the forest?''
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<u>Ablative Case</u>
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* '''lharid-ikh-<u>un</u>-i-<u>an</u> kansaptha-nat'''<br />run-PST-<u>1MPL</u>-PROG forest.F-ABL<br />''We were running out of the forest''
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<u>Allative Case</u>
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* '''kaura malar lharid-in-unan numa-dharati-dan?'''<br />Q why run-PFV-1FPL POSS.1FPL-house.M-ALL<br />''Why have we run towards our house?''
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<u>Prolative Case</u>
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* '''lharid-in-i toshani kansaptha-danar'''<br />run-PFV-3MSG dragon.M forest-PROL<br />''The dragon has run through the forest''
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<u>Instructive</u>
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* '''bilar-ikh-amin nani-dharati-me noima-len'''<br />build-PST-2MPL POSS.2MPL-house-ACC wood.N-INST<br />''You built your house with (using) wood''
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<u>Vocative</u>
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* '''fa-toshani, dha-tumed-anni nukhimo hin-eme!'''<br />VOC-dragon, NEG-able-2MSG destroy.INF PN.1MSG-ACC<br />''O dragon, you cannot destroy me!''
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|}
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===Writing Samples===
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<div style="font-weight:normal; float:right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div><br/>
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{| style="text-align:center;" class="wikitable"
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| colspan="2" | [[File:LorthoSample.JPG|400px|Sample Text]]
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|-
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| Text
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| Translation
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|-
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| '''konpharin lorthome'''
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| I speak Lortho
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|-
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|}
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<div style="font-weight:normal; float:right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div><br/>
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{| class="wikitable"
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|-
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| colspan="2" | [[File:LorthoSample2.jpg|600px|Lortho Sample]]
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|- style="text-align:center;"
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| Text
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| Translation
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|-
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| '''kalanune denimanimu kalanune khonaminalo<br />hana tomidikhimu ma kansapthaina'''
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| The people are known as people of the<br /> lanterns and they lived in that forest.
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|}
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<div style="font-weight:normal; float:right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div><br/>
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{| class="wikitable"
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|-
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| colspan="2" | [[File:Lortho_Text_Signed.jpg|600px|Longer Sample]]
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|- style="text-align:center;"
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| Text
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| Translation
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|-
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| '''lharidikhin kansapthanat hana tharnidikhin<br />dharakhime. konpharinin toshanimela hana<br />semanikhin, "hankhanin malhiro<br /> danadanar<sup style="font-size:0.7em;">1</sup>." remedikhi toshani,<br /> "dhamalhirianni danadanar."'''
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| I ran out of the forest and climbed the mountain.<br /> I was speaking to the dragon and said, "I want<br /> to walk through here." The dragon replied,<br /> "You will not walk through here."<br />
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|-
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| colspan="2" | '''Source:''' [https://www.instagram.com/p/BWmOEyinpTA/?taken-by=bbbourq Brian's Instagram post]
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<p style="font-size:0.8em;"><sup>1</sup>This has been recently changed to ''-dar'' to reduce multi-syllabic affixes.</p>
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|}
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===Folklore===
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<div style="font-weight:normal; float:right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div><br/>
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{|
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|-
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| style="font-size:2em;" | &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;'''''The Unlucky Fox'''''
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|-
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| [[File:TheUnuckyFox.png]]
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|}
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{| class="mw-collapsed mw-collapsible"
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|-
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| ''Click to see the translation and gloss&nbsp;&nbsp;''
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|-
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| '''Romanization:'''<br/>shadar lharane dasat dharakhinat harlikhi nuphi.<br/>khabalikhi nuphi dalhotamekhon dhaharlikha halhadar a.<br/>kilikhikhi ikhi molha kansapume.<br/>harlikha dirdhalama lidalhota mokansapoina.<br/>khar khesikhi nuphi kansapume denalikhu kansapu lukhothume hana tushadikhu khashume nuphinalo.<br/>tharikhu bonhan monu saurammu thasame nuphinalo.
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|-
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| '''IPA:'''<br/>ˈʃɑ.dɑɾ lhɑ.ˈɾɑ.nɛ ˈdɑ.sɑt dʰɑ.ˈɾɑ.kʰi.nɑt ˈhɑɾ.li.kʰi ˈnu.pʰi<br/>kʰɑ.ˈbɑl.ikʰ.i ˈnu.pʰi dɑl.ˈho.tɑ.mɛ.kʰon dʰɑ.ˈhɑɾ.li.kʰɑ ˈhɑl.hɑ.dɑɾ ɑ<br/>ki.ˈli.kʰi.kʰi ˈi.kʰi ˈmol.hɑ kɑn.ˈsɑ.pu.mɛ<br/>ˈhɑɾ.li.kʰɑ diɾ.dʰɑ.ˈlɑ.mɑ li.dɑl.ˈho.tɑ mo.kɑn.ˈsɑ.pɔɪ.nɑ. kʰɑɾ ˈkʰɛ.si.kʰi ˈnu.pʰi kɑn.ˈsɑ.pu.mɛ dɛ<br/>ˈnɑ.li.kʰu kɑn.ˈsɑ.pu lu.ˈkʰo.tʰu.mɛ ˈhɑ.nɑ tu.ˈʃɑ.di.kʰu ˈkʰɑ.ʃu.mɛ ˈnu.pʰi.nɑlo<br/>ˈtʰɑ.ɾi.kʰu ˈbon.hɑn ˈmo.nu saʊ.ˈɾɑm.mu ˈtʰɑ.sɑ.mɛ ˈnu.pʰi.nɑ.lo
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|-
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| '''Leipzig Gloss:'''
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shadar  lhara-ne dasat      dharakhi  -nat harl-ikh-i    nuphi
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'''ago.ADV year -PL beyond.ADV mountain.M-ABL be  -PST-3MSG fox.M'''
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''Once upon a time, there was the fox''
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khabal-ikh-i    nuphi dalhota-me -khon dha-harl-ikh-a    halhadar a
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'''search-PST-3MSG fox.M food.N -ACC-but  NEG-be  -PST-3NSG much.ADJ PN.3NSG'''
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''The fox searched for food, but there was not much of it''
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kilikh-ikh-i    ikhi molha  kansapu-me
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'''see  -PST-3MSG one  huge-N tree.N -ACC'''
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''It saw a huge tree''
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harl-ikh-a    dir    -dhalam-a li          -dalhota mo  -kansapo-ina
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'''be  -PST-3NSG SUPERL  -good  -N PN.POSS.3MSG-food.N  that -tree.F -SUBL'''
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''Its favorite food was in that tree''
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khar khes  -ikh-i    nuphi kansapu-me  denal-ikh-u    kansapu lu          -khothu-me  hana tushad-ikh-u    khashu-me  nuphi-nalo
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'''when scratch-PST-3MSG fox.M tree.F -ACC close-PST-3FSG tree.F  PN.POSS.3FSG-wall.F-ACC and  bury  -PST-3FSG head.F-ACC fox.M-GEN'''
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''When the fox scratched the tree, the tree closed its wall (here it means bark) and buried (trapped) the fox's head''
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thar-ikh-u    bonhan mon  -u saurammu thasa -me  nuphi-nalo
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'''eat -PST-3FSG twenty other-F animal.F head.N-ACC fox.M-GEN'''
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''Twenty other animals ate the fox's body
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''
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|-
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| I know this story is a little morbid; however, I was compelled to write a backstory as to why in Lorthoan culture calling someone a "fox" is considered derogatory, as in someone who is utterly unlucky or who has amassed misfortune.
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|}
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<div style="font-weight:normal; float:right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div><br/>
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==Resources==
 
==Resources==

Revision as of 09:21, 13 April 2018


Spoken in: Lamona Continent
Conworld: Dhamashi, a circumbinary planet
Total Speakers: ~ 60,000,000
Genealogical classification: Proto-Lamona
   - Old Lortho
      - Lortho
         - ?
Basic word order: Verb-Subject-Object
Morphological Type: Agglutinating
Morphosyntactic Alignment: Nominative-Accusative
Created by:
Brian Bourque Conceived in 2003
Manifested in March 2016

Lortho

Lortho (IPA:[ˈloɾ·tʰo]) is an a priori constructed language I conceived in the beginning of 2003. It originally started as a prop for a strategy board game where only the script was created for aesthetics. It is an agglutinating language with some minor fusional aspects.

The people (Kalanune) who speak Lortho live on Dhamashi, a circumbinary planet which has two natural satellites. The planet's surface has many similarities to Earth where it has oceans, mountains, deserts, and forests. The planet has three major continents: Mashonu, Kashti, and Lamona. The Kalanune live on Lamona.

Inspiration

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A friend was creating a board game similar to Risk; however, instead of taking place on Earth, this new game was to take place on an inter-planetary scale. The game creator wanted to develop an extraterrestrial theme and requested a fictional script. The name of the race on this game is "Lortho" and thus the seed was planted. I was unable to work on this piece for quite sometime until I joined the CONLANG mailing list and observed both seasoned and novice conlangers discussing all aspects of linguistics. Since then I decided to move forward and bring Lortho into fruition. The language itself was not invented until the spring of 2016.

Much of the language stems from the languages that I know, namely Persian, French, and Korean. Although the language is a priori, much of its construction resembles that of an Indo-European flavor; albeit unintentionally. The phonology is largely inspired by Persian (Farsi) in that each letter is strictly pronounced regardless of their position in the the syllable/word. The agglutinating aspect of the language was largely influenced by Korean; however, the cases were inspired by both Hungarian and Finnish. The orthography was inspired by Central/East Asian orthographies which is further expounded below.

Another source of inspiration is my daughter. Through her development of learning how to make speech sounds leading to coherent speech and communication, she "created" words to communicate her wants and needs. Some of these words found their way into the Lortho lexicon.


Want to learn more? Then let's get down to business!

Etymology of Lortho

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Lortho is a combination of Lor, the god from which their story of life stems, and -tho, the inalienable form for the genitive case. It has since become a noun and can take other case endings (e.g. konpharin lorthome - I speak Lortho-ACC).

The mountain whence Lor is said to originate is called Malhi Dharakhi, "Great Mountain," and is located in the coastal mountain range on the west coast of Lamona.

Goals

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The goal is to create the gradual progression of Lortho which will lead to the development of daughter languages and, eventually, create sister languages which have developed on different parts of the planet.

Phonology

Orthography

Morphology

Syntax

Example Texts

Resources

Linguistics

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Endangered Alphabets - YouTube channel about 14 of the world's writing systems threatened with extinction
International Phonetic Alphabet
Glossika Phonics - YouTube channel for IPA pronunciation
NativLang - YouTube channel about the history of written and spoken language
Omniglot
Online Etymology Dictionary (English)
Reddit: Linguistics
Wikitongues - A not for profit YouTube project to help preserve the world's living languages
World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS)

Constructed Languages

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Conlang Atlas of Language Structures (CALS)
Conlang Bulletin Board (CBB)
Conlang Critic - A YouTube vlogger who offers insight on conlangs
Conlang Mailing List
Conlang Relay Museum on CALS
Conlanging on Wikibooks
ConWorkShop - an online one-stop-shop for cataloging your conlang
Fiat Lingua - an online archive of conlang articles
How to design your own script (on CBB)
Language Creation Society (LCS)
LCS on YouTube
Reddit: Conlangs
Reddit: Neography (Constructed Scripts)
Speculative Grammarian - A satirical periodical on linguistics and conlangery
Zompist Bulletin Board (ZBB)

Lortho

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Lortho on CALS
Lortho in the 24th Conlang Relay (8th Position)
Lortho on ConWorkShop
Lortho on FrathWiki
Lortho Lexicon
Lortho's writing progress - Lextreme2018 Challenge on Instagram
Lortho on Instagram
The World of Dhamashi (CBB)
The World of Dhamashi (Conworlds.fun)
Lortho website (teaser)

Miscellaneous

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Sajem Tan (Common Honey) Collaborative Conlang Discord Server
Brian on Instagram

References

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