Phonology

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Consonants

There are 18 consonants in Lortho and all are strictly pronounced the same regardless of placement.

Consonants[1]
Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive   p   pʰ   b   t   tʰ     d   dʰ     k   kʰ          
Fricative f s ʃ h   
Lateral Approximant l   lʰ
Tap or Flap ɾ

Vowels

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Monophthongs[1]


  Front Near- front Central Near- back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i
u  
o  
ɛ
a
  Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Diphthongs

Diphthongs.png

Phonotactics

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Syllable Structure

The syllable structure is (C)(C)V(V)(C).

Not sure how a syllable works?
  1. A syllable has three parts: an onset, a nucleus, and a coda.
    • The onset is the consonant sound(s) at the very beginning of the syllable
    • The nucleus is the vowel in the middle of the syllable
    • The coda is the final consonant sound(s) of the syllable
  2. The smallest syllable construct is just the nucleus which can either be a vowel or syllabic consonant (like /m/ in rhythm which in IPA would be written as [m̩]).
  3. The maximum depends on the language. For example, in English the maximum syllable structure is CCCVCCCCC which covers the longest monosyllabic word in English: strengths

Consonant Clusters

There are very few consonant clusters allowed; however, clusters formed from adjacent syllables (i.e. coda + onset) are more common. These clusters are:

  1. /nd/
  2. /nt/ (which includes [ntʰ])
  3. /nk/ (with an allophone of [ŋk])
  4. /np/ (with an allophone of [mp])
  5. /ns/
  6. /pt/
  7. /rt/
  8. /sk/
  9. /pr/ (which includes [pʰr])

UPDATE: Consonant clusters are still being discovered. When this language was in its infancy, there were very few clusters allowed; however, more information has come to light that clusters are more common than originally thought.

Prosody

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Stress

Stress in Lortho is handled as follows:

  1. Stress is always on the penultimate syllable of the root or infinitive except:
    • -n verbs will always receive stress on the final syllable of the infinitive or root.
    • Pluralized nouns will shift the stress to the penultimate syllable.
  2. If the word is two syllables long, then the stress is on the first syllable.
  3. Stress is neither given to prefixes nor suffixes.

  1. 1.0 1.1 International Phonetic Alphabet. (2018, October 17). Retrieved from http://www.ipachart.com